Types of Solid Dosage Forms, definitions, advantages, and route of administration
Introduction to Solid Dosage Form
Medicines are commonly administered as solid dosage formulations, and most widely is the oral route. To facilitate the administration, to reach the drug into the systemic circulation, and achieve the desired therapeutic activity, physicochemical characteristics, as well the excipients added to the formulations, play a crucial role.
Since the nineteenth century, tablets and capsules have been in existence. Tablets and capsules dosage forms comprising a mixture of ingredients, excipient and active. These dosage forms contain an accurate dose of a drug.
There are many different types of solid dosage forms developed to fulfill desired delivery requirements. Mostly those are oral administration and systemic delivery.
The major solid oral dosage form is the tablet, and these can range from relatively simple, single, immediate-release dosage forms to complex modified-release systems.
Advantages of tablets as a Dosage Form
The sold oral formulations have many advantages for both patients and manufacturers.
Advantages of tablets as a Dosage Form are:
- Handling is easy
- Various methods are available for manufacturing
- Cost-effective for bulk manufacturing
- Robust and reproducible quality of tables can be produced with precise dosing
- Easy to administer, self – administration is possible
- More stability with respect to mechanical, chemical, and microbiological aspect compared to liquid formulations
- Convertible into different profiles – for example, tablets can be coated to mask the taste, smell etc. The coating can be applied to convert formulation from immediate-release formulation to sustained release
Types of Solid Dosage Forms
The common form of a tablet is Immediate Release (IR) dosage form. These types of tablets are intended to be swallowed entirely. It quickly disintegrates and releases the drug in the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate absorption into the systemic circulation.
However, various types of tablets are classified as per their function, route of administration, form, or manufacturing process.
Tablets administered through the oral route are also subdivided in various types. For example, tablets can be placed in the oral cavity and swallowed, or dissolved in the mouth, or to it can be chewed before swallowing. Furthermore, other formulation types provide sustained or controlled release of the drug.
Based on the studies, the desired dose at the target site, bioavailability requirements, and solid dose formulations, are designed. The carefully designed formulation provides desired release properties, ease of bulk manufacturing, and aesthetics.
The factors of the active ingredient, such as solubility and dose requirement, are also the critical considerations in the formulation development.
Types of solid dosage forms, drug release mechanisms, and mode of administration are:
|Types of Solid Dosage Form||Description for Solid Dosage Form administration|
|Immediate Release Tablet or Capsule||The tablets are intended to release the drug immediately on administration once it reaches in Gastrointestinal Track|
|Delayed Release Tablet or Capsule||Drug does not get released until receipt of physical stress, for example change in pH|
|Sustained Release tablet or Capsule||Drug is released slowly over extended period of time|
|Soluble Tablets||Tablet is dissolved in water to administer|
|Dispersible Tablet||Tablet is added into water or other liquid to form a suspension prior to administration|
|Effervescent Tablet||Tablet is added to water, releasing carbon dioxide to form an effervescent solution|
|Chewable Tablet||Tablet is chewed to disintegrate in the mouth and swallowed|
|Chewable Gum||Formulation is chewed and removed from the mouth after a directed time|
|Lozenge||Oral tablet that is designed to slowly dissolving to be sucked|
|Pastille||Tablet dissolve slowly in the mouth having gelatin and glycerine to facilitate dissolution|
|Buccal and Sublingual Tablets||Tablet is placed in the oral cavity or under the tongue for local or systemic action|
|Orally Disintegrating Tablet||Tablet disintegrates in the mouth to facilitate dissolution without the need for water|
|Hard Gelatin Capsule||It consists of two piece capsule shell (body and cap). Capsule shell filled with powder, granulate, semisolid or liquid|
|Soft Gelatin Capsule or Softgel||Capsule filling is done simultaneously with capsule formation. The capsule containing a liquid or semisolid fill|
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